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虚拟语气语法解析(二)
发布日期:2022-05-11 16:25    点击次数:269

三、七类使用虚拟语气的常见从句

1. wish后的宾语从句用虚拟语式

要表示与现在事实相反的愿望,从句谓语一般过去时或过去进行时,表示与过去相反的愿望,从句谓语用过去完成时或would / could+have +过去分词,表示将来没有把握或不太可能实现的愿望,用would (could)+动词原形:

I wish I were [was] better looking. 要是我长得漂亮些就好了。

She wished she had stayed at home. 她后悔的是她当时要是留在家里就好了。

I wish you would go with us tomorrow. 要是你明天同我们一起去就好了。

注:从句的时态只与从句所指的时间有关,而与wish的时态无关,比较:

I wish I were rich. 要是我现在有钱就好了。

I wish I had been rich. 要是那时我有钱就好了。

I wished I were rich. 当时我后悔自己没有钱。

I wished I had been rich. 当时我后悔自己曾经没有钱。

 

2. if only的句子后用虚拟语气

if only 与 I wish一样,也是表示与事实相反的愿望的,其后所虚拟语气的时态与 wish后所接时态的情况相同:

If only I were [was] better looking. 要是我长得漂亮些就好了。

If only I had listened to my parents! 我要是当时听了父母的话就好了。

If only she would go with me! 她要是愿意和我一道去就好了!

注:if only 通常独立使用,没有主句。

 

3. as if (as though) 从句中的虚拟语气

以as if (as though)引导的方式状语从句或表语从句,有时用虚拟语气,若表示与现在事实相反,谓语动词用一般过去时;若表示与过去事实相反,用过去完成时;表示将来的可能性不大,用would (might, could)+动词原形:

He acts as if he knew me. 他显得认识我似的。

They treat me as though I were a stranger.  他们待我如陌生人。

He talks as if he had been abroad. 他说起话来好像曾经出过国。

注:(1) 从句所表示的内容若为事实或可能为事实,也可用陈述语气:

It looks as if we’ll be late. 我们似乎要迟到了。

This meat tastes as if it has already gone bad. 这肉吃起来似乎已经坏了。

在现代英语中,有时即使从句内容不是事实,也可能用陈述语气:

I feel as if [as though] I’m floating on air. 他感到好像漂浮在空中。

The stuffed dog barked as if it is [were, was] a real one. 玩具狗叫起来像真狗。

(2) 注意 It isn’t as if…的翻译:

It isn’t as if he were poor. 他不像穷的样子(或他又不穷)。

It isn’t as if you were going away for good. 又不是你离开不回来了。

 

4. It is time 后的定语从句用虚拟语气

从句谓语通常用过去式表示现在或将来,有时也用过去进行时或“should+动词原形”(较少见,且should不能省略),其意为“(早)该干某事了”:

I think it’s time you went to bed. 我想你该睡觉了。

It’s time we went [were going, should go]. 我们该走了。

注:(1) time前有时有about和high修饰:

It’s high time you bought a new car. 你该买辆新车了。

(2) 与其他的虚拟结构不同,该结构不能在该用was时而用were:

It’s time I was in bed. 我该上床睡了。(不用were)

 

5. would rather后的句子用虚拟语气

通常用一般过去时表示现在或将来的愿望,用过去完成时表过去的愿望:

I’d rather you went tomorrow (now). 我宁愿你明天(现在)去。

I’d rather you hadn’t said it. 我真希望你没有这样说过。

 

6. 某些用虚拟语气的宾语从句

在表示“坚持”、“命令”、“建议”、“要求”等后的宾语从句要用虚拟语气。这类动词有人归纳为“一个坚持(insist)、两个命令(order, command)、三个建议(advise, suggest, propose)、四个要求(demand, require, request, ask)”,这类虚拟语气由“should+动词原形”构成,其中的should在美国英语中通常可以省略:

He insisted that I (should) go with them. 他坚持要我同他们一起去。

He ordered that it (should) be sent back. 他命令把它送回去。

The doctor advised [suggested] that he (should) not smoke. 医生建议他不要抽烟。

He requires that I (should) appear. 他要求我出场。

注:(1) 其中引导宾语从句的that通常不省略。

(2) 这类句子有时可用于被动结构,前面用先行词it作主语,代表后面的从句:

It was proposed that this matter be discussed next time. 有人提议这事下次再讨论。

(3) 动词insist后接宾语从句时,除可用虚拟语气外,也可用陈述语气,两者的区别是:若谓语动词所表示的动作尚未发生,或尚未成为事实,则用虚拟语气;若谓语动词所表示的动作已经发生,或已经成为事实,则要用陈述语气。比较:

He insisted that I had read his letter. 他坚持说我看过他的信。

He insisted that I should read his letter. 他坚持要我看他的信。

(4) 与动词insist相似,动词suggest后接宾语从句时,除可用虚拟语气外,也可用陈述语气,两者的区别也是:若谓语动词所表示的情况尚未成为事实,则用虚拟语气,此时suggest通常译为“建议”;若谓语动词所表示的情况为既成事实,则要用陈述语气,此时的suggest通常译为“表明”、“认为”。比较并体会:

He suggested that we (should) stay for dinner. 他建议我们留下吃饭。

What he said suggested that he was a cheat. 他说的话表明他是个骗子。

I suggested that you had a secret understanding with him. 我觉得你与他心照不宣。

(5) 以上动词用作名词或派生出的名词时,相应的主语从句、表语从句或同位语从句也用虚拟语气:

His demand is that we (should) set off at once. 他要求我们马上出发。

He made the demand that we (should) set off at once. 他要求我们马上出发。

(6) 在现代英语中,以上动词(包括其名词形式以及其派生名词)有时也可不用虚拟语气(但初学者宜慎用):

Her suggestion was we had our conversation in French. 她的建议是我们用法语交谈。

He said that he would not be long and suggested that we waited for him. 他说他不会去很久,并建议我们等他。

 

7. 某些用虚拟语气的主语从句

形容词important, impossible, necessary等后的主语从句通常用虚拟语气:

It is impossible that he should go home. 他不可能会回家去。

It is necessary that I should return it right now. 我有必要马上还回去。

注:(1) 在现代英语中,有时也可不用虚拟语气而用陈述语气,但初学者宜慎用。

(2) 在It is amazing (strange, surprising, astonishing, a pity, a shame)以及 I am surprised (sorry) 和I regret等结构后的that 从句中有时也用should,表示说话人的惊异、懊悔、失望等情感,常含有“竟然”之意。如:

It’s strange that he should be so rude. 他竟如此无礼,真是奇怪。

I’m surprised that he should have failed. 他竟然失败了,这使我很吃惊。

若不用虚拟语气也可以,则不带感色彩,比较:

It’s a pity that he failed the exam. 他考试没及格,真是遗憾。

It’s a pity that he should have failed the exam. 他考试竟没及格,真是遗憾。

 

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